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    Inicio > Historias > On the Road

    On the Road

    Jack Kerouac, 1957.

    Es sorprendente cómo un libro de finales de los 50 sobre cosas pasadas a finales de los 40 retrata a la perfección los ideales y la corrupción de finales de los 60. Retratando a una generación, marcó a otra. O quizá retrata y marca a todas las generaciones habidas y por haber, porque todo hombre sólo vive una vez y a veces pareciera que todos surcamos el mismo río.

    Hay gente que lee La llamada de la selva de Jack London y sienten su alma resonar. La mayoría simplemente cree que se trata de un libro juvenil, con eso de que el protagonista es un perro, y aceptan de buen grado la conmovedora historia de Buck. A nadie le inquieta que un perro que ha tenido mala vida se asilvestre y encuentre la paz entre los lobos. Además, el propio Jack London nos da la antítesis, Colmillo Blanco, el lobo se domestica y vive feliz aceptando las normas sociales de los humanos.

    Más o menos por la época de London, Freud vendría a decirnos que en la mente humana hay dos fuerzas subconscientes, un ello dominado por pulsiones, instintos más o menos "salvajes", y otro polo completamente opuesto, el super-yo formado por la asimilación cultural, la educación, los valores correctos para sobrevivir en sociedad. Individualismo frente a conformismo social, quizá.

    Freud aparte, esa dicotomía entre la aceptación de las normas éticas y lo que la sociedad espera de uno por un lado y por el otro los impulsos de satisfacción individual es lo que forja la personalidad de todos y cada uno de los seres humanos. Más o menos todo el mundo madura, acepta su rol, aunque casi todos pasemos por alguna que otra etapa revoltosa. Más o menos. Algunos, en cambio, son de por vida unos inadaptados. Jóvenes rebeldes, viejos vagabundos, o simplemente gente a la que siempre les sale cruz. Y a la sociedad no le gustan los inadaptados. La gente asocial rompe la estabilidad, cuestionan la necesidad de que los jóvenes acepten su papel en la vida en sociedad. Las reglas están para obedecerse, no para cuestionarse y mucho menos para ser ignoradas. Por eso se les estigmatiza, muchas veces se les prejuzga y se hace que su única salida sean comportamientos auténticamente antisociales. El inquieto acaba delinquiendo y la sociedad tiene por fin su justificación para acabar de destruirlos, de apartarlos.

    On the Road es una historia de viajes, pero el sentido geográfico sólo sirve como excusa para ilustrar un estado mental, una filosofía de vida, una realidad social. Como en todas las buenas historias de viajes que se precien, no se trata del recorrido sino de los cambios que experimenta el propio viajante.

    Sal Paradise, el protagonista y narrador, alter ego del propio Kerouac, es Buck y Colmillo Blanco a la vez. Siente la llamada de lo salvaje y se deja arrastrar por ella, pero siempre retorna a su lugar, su Nueva York y sus libros. La carretera como catarsis, la distancia como excusa para alejarse de los problemas, y el viaje como una búsqueda de uno mismo. Sin experiencias uno no madura realmente, no encuentra su lugar sino que simplemente acepta aquel en el que cae.

    El catalizador de este proceso de maduración es el otro personaje, Dean Moriarty, el estereotipo del rebelde sin causa, vaqueros y camiseta blanca, educado en reformatorios y destinado a acabar vagabundo como su padre. La personificación misma de todas las pulsiones primarias de nuestro inconsciente. Energía pura a la vez que sumidero sin fondo de las energías vitales de los que le rodean. Él es la excusa para que Sal Paradise emprenda sus viajes pero también el motivo por el que terminan.

    El transfondo lo pone una sociedad salida de la guerra mundial, en crisis económica, sin trabajo para todos los veteranos, donde los que no han logrado salir de la gran depresión siguen malviviendo, donde los negros o los inmigrantes mexicanos viven marginados. Aceptar el papel que a uno le toca es difícil en esta situación, aceptar unas reglas del juego claramente injustas es duro. Por eso vemos en el transcurso de los viajes que hay dos Américas, una conduce cadillacs y va de vacaciones y otra va en camiones a recoger algodón o naranjas, escucha jazz, vive borracha o drogada todo lo que puede para evadirse de su miseria y la una apenas sabe de la existencia de la otra.

    El viaje es a la vez excitante y deprimente. Uno amplía su horizonte pero a cambio ve más contrastes e injusticias. Uno vive la vida pero a cambio es perseguido por el hambre y las demás necesidades. Uno prueba la salsa de la vida pero resulta que tiene un sabor agridulce. Al menos el viaje de Sal es provechoso. Aprende, crece. Es de ida y vuelta. Dean en cambio vive en permanente viaje: nunca llegará a ninguna parte y se destruirá en el camino.

    Soñar sólo conduce a despertar, sí, pero al menos se ha soñado. Vivir sólo nos lleva a morir, sí, pero por eso es tan importante sentir que se ha vivido.

    2008-02-21 03:23 | 17 Comentarios


    Referencias (TrackBacks)

    URL de trackback de esta historia http://biblos.blogalia.com//trackbacks/55735

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